Previously reserved for cases of severe male infertility, ICSI is increasingly used by couples in IVF. It involves isolating a sperm cell and injecting it into the egg, using a small glass needle. The results are excellent, with 75% of the eggs being fertilized.
In the case where sperm are completely absent from the ejaculate, they can be surgically collected from the epididymis or the testicles. This allows the couple to have a biological child, rather than using sperm from a donor.